In a discovery that defies the popular meaning of the word “wire,” scientists have found that Mother Nature uses DNA as a wire to detect the constantly occurring genetic damage and mistakes that ― if left unrepaired ― can result in diseases like cancer and underpin the physical and mental decline of aging.
“DNA is a very fragile and special wire,” said Jacqueline K. Barton, Ph.D., who delivered the talk. “You’re never going to wire a house with it, and it isn’t sturdy enough to use in popular electronic devices. But that fragile state is exactly what makes DNA so good as an electrical biosensor to identify DNA damage.”
Barton’s research suggested that DNA uses its electrical properties to signal repair proteins that fix DNA damage. If the DNA is no longer conducting electricity properly, that would be a signal for repair proteins to do their thing. Barton’s team is applying that knowledge in developing “DNA chips,” devices that take advantage of DNA’s natural electrical conductivity and its ability to bind to other strands of DNA that have a complementary sequence of base units, and thus probe that sequence for damage. Such a DNA chip would help diagnose disease risk by changes in electrical conductivity resulting from mutations or some other damage.